After studying this chapter students should:
1. Be able to describe the development and significance of the relationship between hominids and their changing environment and be able to identify the three distinctive traits of human beings.
2. Be able to describe the ways in which early humans adapted to different environments and be able to differentiate between hunter-gatherer and food-producing economies.
3. Be able to analyze the environmental causes and effects of the transition from hunter-gatherer to food-producing economies.
4. Be able to describe the relationship between the development of different economies (hunter-gatherer, agricultural, and pastoral) and their different social and cultural characteristics.
5. Be able to explain how the earliest civilizations developed in challenging environments.
6. Be able to draw connections between the organization of labor resources in early civilizations and their social and political structures.
7. Be able to assess the impact of new technologies on the social development of early civilizations.
8. Be able to trace the development of social and political institutions and religious beliefs in river valley civilizations and understand the relationship between these institutions and beliefs and the natural environment.
A general overview/summary of this chapter is available on this page.
A longer reading is available here.
Further reading on Mesopotamia is available here.
An online powerpoint is available here.
Vocabulary Study Edit
A vocabulary list in quizlet is available here.
Additional links can be found on this page.